Warehouse definition

A warehouse, in general, is a place for storage of goods, or, in another aspect - the organization that carries out operations with commodities in the warehouse. It can either be a separate unit, or be a part of a company. Storing the goods, building orders, splitting shipments, if necessary - packaging, as well as selling the goods to wholesalers are being done at a warehouse. The classification of warehouses is very diverse. They are classified by different traits. By storing method: closed, open and half closed. In turn closed warehouses can be classified by the number of stores (multi-stores, surface and underground) and heat ability. Due to the tendency of saving space, construction of warehouses now tends to rise, warehouse location under the ground, the enlargement of aisles of the supporting structures (for storing large cargo). In the modern construction of warehouses structures out of light alloys are used. There are several other ways to categorize warehouses. For example, depending on the set of services (divided into classes from A to D), or by type of ownership (owned or leased), or by purpose (distribution, long-term storage, universal, specialized, commercial, industrial, etc.), or by storage mode (heated and not, cold storage, etc.). Nowadays big warehouses, providing the entire set of storage services that allow to minimize the expenses by rejecting owned warehouses, are becoming more popular. In such warehouses the following services are done: loading and unloading at special terminals, packaging and consolidation of the goods, separate storage of different types of products (bulk, liquid, requiring special storage conditions). Usually such warehouse complexes are equipped with modern facilities and access roads and railway lines.

Warehouse category A

Buildings, specially built for implementation of warehouse activities. There are requirements concerning the materials which were used during the construction of the building, height of the ceilings, width of the aisles, the possibility of adapting the inner space depending on the type of the stored goods. The existence of a railway, a modern security system, an autonomous electricity system and water supply system, the possibility of organizing office space, proximity to major highways. These warehouses are usually one-stores buildings with special floor covering, heavy equipment, the availability of specialized rooms - offices, administrative, auxiliary . With a modern fire-extinguishing system. With the ability to regulate the level of humidity, temperature, illumination indoors, depending on the type of stored goods. - Modern single-storey warehouse building, preferably rectangular shape without columns or with column space of at least 9 m and distance between the aisles at least 24 meters. - Site coverage ratio 40–45%. - Flat concrete floor with anti-dust surface, with more than 5 tons per sq m load, 1,20 m high above the soil. - High ceilings – at least 10 m allowing multilevel racking installation. - Controlled temperature. - Ventilation system. - Fire alarm and automatic fire-fighting systems. - Security alarm and video surveillance. - A sufficient (more then 1 per 700 sq m) ratio of automatic sheltered docks with dock levellers. - Parking for heavy-duty vehicles and cars. - Marshalling area for trucks. - Office premises. - Personnel facilities (toilets, showers, changing rooms and etc). - Fiber-optic telecommunications. - Fenced, safety guarded, well-lighted and landscaped area. - Proximity to the major highways. - Professional property management. - Professional developer (optional) - Personnel access control system (optional) - Autonomous power and heating supplies (optional) - Railway spur. (optional)

Warehouse category B

Relatively new or reconstructed buildings, usually with many stores. There are standards concerning ceiling height, the presence of a ramp for unloading trucks, the availability of automated gates, cargo lifts, modern fire suppression systems, the presence of auxiliary facilities or the possibility of organizing them. Major investments are required in equipping warehouses with modern technical facilities, as well as hiring skilled guards. - New built or redeveloped single- or multi- storey warehouse building, preferably rectangular shape. - A sufficient ratio of freight elevators with load capacity over 3 tons (at least 1 per each 2,000 sq m) for the multi-storey buildings. - Ceilings height exceeding 6 m. - Floor - asphalt or uncoated concrete. - Heating system. - Fire alarm and automatic fire-fighting systems. - Loading bay. - Parking for heavy-duty vehicles. - Marshalling sites for heavy-duty trucks. - Fenced, safety guarded area. - Telecommunications. - Security alarm and video surveillance. - Personnel facilities. - Ventilation system (optional) - Office premises (optional) - Personnel access control system (optional) - Autonomous power and heating supplies (optional) - Railway spur. (optional)

Warehouse category C

Buildings, not meant for storage originally (usually former factories, haulage companies, or different hangars), or warehouses built during the last century. Usually these warehouses have a heating system and a ramp for unloading trucks. They need a lot of funds to move up in the classification, first of all to demote the old equipment, create the security system, equipping the spare gates, driveways, places for maneuvering heavy haulers. - Industrial facility or heat-insulated hangar - Ceilings height exceeding 4 m. - Floor - asphalt or concrete tile, uncoated concrete - Freight elevators for the multi-storey buildings (optional) - Gates (optional) - Parking and marshalling sites for the heavy-duty vehicles (optional) - Ventilation system (optional) - Heating system (optional) - Office premises (optional) - Fire alarm and automatic fire-fighting systems (optional) - Loading bay (optional) - Fenced, safety guarded area (optional) - Telecommunications (optional) - Personnel facilities (optional) - Railway spur (optional)

Warehouse category D

Rooms not specifically made for storage. They can be cellars, garages and other separate not heated buildings. Such warehouses usually house things that do not need specific storage condition, tough against outside influence, for example raw materials. Such warehouses are not upgraded, but used in the condition they are in already, since the costs of the modernization can be higher than those of building a new warehouse. No services, for example security, are offered. - Underground or “Civil Defense” facilities, unheated industrial premises or hangars - Parking and marshalling sites for heavy-duty vehicles (optional) - Fire alarm and automatic fire-fighting systems (optional) - Ventilation system (optional) - Telecommunications (optional) - Fenced, safety guarded area (optional) - Railway spur (optional)

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